# what if I'm not speaking English?

the seximal nomenclature I've described is very much based on how the English language handles numbers, and it wouldn't work for other languages. let's fix that!

*if you have any ideas for how to adapt the seximal system into other languages, or on how to make the translations provided here better, **let me know** and I'll probably put them on this page!*

## Mandarin

Mandarin handles numbers in a nice regular way, as do most other Chinese languages. for numbers between ten and a hundred, you just say the amount of tens (unless it's only one ten), the word for ten (拾), and then how much more than ten it is (unless it's exactly a multiple of ten). this system is easily extendable into something sixier:

0: 零 (líng)

1: 壹 (yī)

2: 贰 (èr)

3: 叁 (sān)

4: 肆 (sì)

5: 伍 (wǔ)

10: 陆 (liù)

11: 陆壹 (liùyī)

12: 陆贰 (liùèr)

13: 陆叁 (liùsān)

14: 陆肆 (liùsì)

15: 陆伍 (liùwǔ)

20: 贰陆 (èrliù)

30: 叁陆 (sānliù)

40: 肆陆 (sìliù)

50: 伍陆 (wǔliù)

for 100, we run into a problem. Chinese numerals use a really cool myriad system for powers of ten, and the Mandarin words for them aren't derived from anything; they're just unique words. in order to have seximal in Mandarin work the same way decimal works in Mandarin, we'd need to make completely new words for nif and the powers of unexian. how? beats me.

## Spanish

Spanish has unique names for every number up to dozen three, which is halfway between two multiples of ten. the seximal equivalent of this is to have unique words for everything up to nine before things get more systemic.

0: cero

1: uno

2: dos

3: tres

4: cuatro

5: cinco

10: seis

11: siete

12: ocho

13: nueve

we can handle the next two numbers the same way Spanish handles most numbers that aren't divisible by ten, using the word "y" for addition.

14: seis y cuatro

15: seis y cinco

most Spanish names for multiples of ten end with -enta. a good seximal equivalent would be something like -ensa, which replaces the t with an s the same way -sy is derived from -ty.

20: doce

30: treinsa

40: cuarensa

50: cinuensa

after that, we can simply loan the words for larger powers of nif.

100: nif

101: nif uno

110: nif seis

120: nif doce

130: nif treinsa

131: nif treinsa y uno

200: dos nif

300: tres nif

1000: seis nif

1 0000: unexián

1 0000 0000: biexián

## Indonesian

Indonesian has separate names for every number up to eleven, which all can be preserved.

0: nol

1: satu

2: dua

3: tiga

4: empat

5: lima

10: enam

11: tujuh

12: delapan

13: sembilan

14: sepuluh

15: sebelas

Indonesian then uses "belas" to mean "plus ten" until it reaches two tens, somewhat like the English -teen suffix. from there, the word "puluh", derived from "sepuluh", starts being used to mean "times ten". for seximal, we can remove the first syllable of "enam" to make the analogous word "nam", which is actually already a recognizable way to say "six" in Indonesian if Wiktionary is to be believed.

20: dua nam

21: dua nam satu

22: dua nam dua

23: dua nam tiga

24: dua nam empat

25: dua nam lima

30: tiga nam

40: empat nam

50: lima nam

for larger powers of six, we can just loan nif and the -exian series. Indonesian phonology doesn't allow the sequence /ks/, so -exian becomes -ekasian.

100: nif

101: nif satu

110: nif enam

120: nif dua nam

200: dua nif

1 0000: unekasian

1 0000 0000: biekasian

## Russian

numbers up to six can have their Russian names preserved in seximal.

0: ноль (nol')

1: один (odin)

2: две (dve)

3: три (tri)

4: четыре (četyre)

5: пять (pjat')

10: шесть (šest')

multiples of ten in Russian mostly end with some variant of -десят (-desjat), which means "ten", with the exception of four times ten, which is called the very cool name сорок (sorok). words for multiples of six can be formed by making a -шесть (-šest') suffix for "times six".

11: шесть один (šest' odin)

12: шесть две (šest' dve)

13: шесть три (šest' tri)

14: шесть четыре (šest' četyre)

15: шесть пять (šest' pjat')

20: двешесть (dvešest')

30: тришесть (trišest')

40: четырешесть (četyrešest')

50: пятьшесть (pjat'šest')

the large powers of six can be loaned directly with no problems.

100: ниф (nif)

200: две ниф (dve nif)

1000: шесть ниф (šest' nif)

1 0000: унексиян (uneksijan)

1 0000 0000: биексиян (bieksijan)

## Portuguese

Portuguese has separate words for every number up to dozen three, and we can keep all of them up to a dozen.

0: zero

1: um

2: dois

3: três

4: quatro

5: cinco

10: seis

11: sete

12: oito

13: nove

14: dez

15: onze

20: doze

we can handle numbers after that the same way Portuguese handles most numbers that aren't divisible by ten, using the word "e" for addition (and using the Portuguese word for dozen for numbers up to thirsy).

21: dúzia e um

22: dúzia e dois

23: dúzia e três

24: dúzia e quatro

25: dúzia e cinco

also like in Spanish, multiples of ten usually end with -enta in Portuguese. the -ensa solution works here too.

30: trinsa

40: quarensa

50: cinquensa

the Portuguese word for ten tens is "cem", and multiples of cem are formed with variants of the -centos suffix. the seximal equivalent of this is to turn "nif" (loaned as "nife") into a -nifes suffix.

100: nife

110: nife e seis

200: dunifes

300: trenifes

400: quatronifes

500: quinnifes

1000: seis nife

1100: seis nife e nife

1200: seis nife e dunifes

finally, the -exian series can be loaned directly.

1 0000: unexião

1 0000 0000: biexião

## French

the French language has separate words for every number up to dozen four. annoyingly, this means that the only number without a basic French name between twelve and thirsy is dozen five. I think the best solution to this is to just not use any of the words after twelve.

0: zéro

1: un

2: deux

3: trois

4: quatre

5: cinq

10: six

11: sept

12: huit

13: neuf

14: dix

15: onze

20: douze

most multiples of ten have French names that end with -ante, which, as we've done for other Romance languages, can be replaced with -anse to form names for multiples of six.

21: douze et un

22: douze deux

23: douze trois

24: douze quatre

25: douze cinq

30: trense

40: quaranse

the number eighty (two nif eight), despite being a multiple of ten, doesn't have a name that ends with -ante. instead, it's called quatre vingts, which means "four twenties". because of this, I don't think it would be fitting for French to use something like "cinquanse" for fifsy. even though it's five sixes, it's also three tens, and isn't that more important?

50: trente

the large powers of six can be loaned directly with no problems.

100: nif

101: nif un

110: nif six

200: duex nif

1000: six nif

1 0000: unexian

1 0000 0000: biexian

## Hausa

the Hausa words for numbers up to six can be preserved.

0: sifili

1: daya

2: biyu

3: uku

4: hudu

5: biyar

10: shida

numbers after six can be formed the same as numbers after eleven, using the word "sha", which means "and".

11: shida sha

12: shida sha biyu

13: shida sha uku

14: shida sha huɗu

15: shida sha biyar

multiples of ten in Hausa are loanwords from Arabic. to make multiples of six, we can alter these words to all end with -shida, the Hausa word for six.

20: ashida

21: ashida da daya

22: ashida da biyu

23: ashida da uku

24: ashida da hudu

25: ashida da biyar

30: talashida (this apparently means cheek, so it might not work)

31: talashida daya

32: talashida da biyu

33: talashida uku

34: talashida da hudu

35: talashida da biyar

40: arbashida

41: arbashida daya

42: arbashida da biyu

43: arbashida uku

44: arbashida da hudu

45: arbashida da biyar

50: hamshida

51: hamshida daya

52: hamshida da biyu

53: hamshida uku

54: hamshida da huhu

55: hamshida da biyar

for large powers of ten, Hausa puts the word for the power before the word for the digit, so this is also how Hausa uses nif and the -exian series. Hausa phonology doesn't allow the sequence /ks/, so -exian becomes -eciyan.

100: nif

101: nif da daya

102: nif da biyu

103: nif da uku

110: nif da shida

111: nif da shida sha

200: nif biyu

202: nif biyu da biyu

220: nif biyu da ashida

222: nif biyu da ashida da biyu

1000: nif shida

1 0000: uneciyan

1 0000 0000: biyeciyan

## German

German uses separate words for numbers up to twelve, which can all stay the same in seximal.

0: null

1: eins

2: zwei

3: drei

4: vier

5: fünf

10: sechs

11: sieben

12: acht

13: neun

14: zehn

15: elf

20: zwölf

in German, the ones place is spoken before the tens place, with the word "und" (and) separating them. (with no spaces, obviously, because this is German we're talking about here)

21: einundzwölf

22: zweiundzwölf

23: dreiundzwölf

24: vierundzwölf

25: fünfundzwölf

multiples of ten are formed with a -zig suffix, which can be adapted into an analogous -sechs suffix for multiples of six.

30: dreißechs

40: viersechs

50: fünfsechs

the word "nif" can be loaned into German, and can be combined with other words the same way German uses "hundert".

100: nif

101: nifeins

110: nifsechs

200: zweinif

1000: sechsnif

5555: fünfundfünfsechsniffünfundfünfsechs

the -exian series needs a little bit of adapting to work the same way as how German deals with -illions, because in German, it's "one Million" (capital M) and "two Millions".

1 0000: eine Unexian

2 0000: zwei Unexianen

1 0000 0000: eine Biexian

## Japanese

Japanese uses different words for small numbers depending on what you're counting. the words for the numbers up to six are different if you're just talking about the numbers themselves,

0: れい (rei)

1: いち (ichi)

2: に (ni)

3: さん (san)

4: よん (yon)

5: ご (go)

10: ろく (roku)

if you're counting objects,

1: ひとつ (hitotsu)

2: ふたつ (futatsu)

3: みっつ (mittsu)

4: よっつ (yottsu)

5: いつつ (itsutsu)

10: むっつ (muttsu)

if you're counting people,

1: ひとり (hitori)

2: ふたり (futari)

3: さんにん (sannin)

4: よにん (yonin)

5: ごにん (gonin)

10: ろくにん (rokunin)

if you're counting days,

1: いちにち (ichinichi)

2: ふつか (futsuka)

3: みっか (mikka)

4: よっか (yokka)

5: いつか (itsuka)

10: むいか (muika)

if you're counting nights,

1: いっぱく (ippaku)

2: にはく (nihaku)

3: さんぱく (sanpaku)

4: よんはく (yonhaku)

5: ごはく (gohaku)

10: ろっぱく (roppaku)

if you're counting floors,

1: いっかい (ikkai)

2: にかい (nikai)

3: さんかい (sankai)

4: よんかい (yonkai)

5: ごかい (gokai)

10: ろっかい (rokkai)

or if you're counting how old someone is.

1: いっさい (issai)

2: にさい (nisai)

3: さんさい (sansai)

4: よんさい (yonsai)

5: ごさい (gosai)

10: ろくさい (rokusai)

in this situation, we're talking about the numbers themselves, so we'll be using the first set of words.

numbers after six can be formed the same way Japanese forms numbers after ten, by saying the amount of sixes, the word ろく, and then the amount of ones.

11: ろくいち (roku ichi)

12: ろくに (roku ni)

13: ろくさん (roku san)

14: ろくよん (roku yon)

15: ろくご (roku go)

20: にろく (niroku)

21: にろくいち (niroku ichi)

30: さんろく (sanroku)

40: よんろく (yonroku)

50: ごろく (goroku)

Japanese is VERY okay with using loanwords.

100: ニフ (nifu)

101: ニフいち (nifu ichi)

110: ニフろく (nifu roku)

111: ニフろくいち (nifu roku ichi)

200: にニフ (ni nifu)

1 0000: ウーネクシアン (ūnekushian)

1 0000 0000: バイエクシアン (baiekushian)

## Dutch

Dutch has unique names for every number up to twelve.

0: nul

1: één

2: twee

3: drie

4: vier

5: vijf

10: zes

11: zeven

12: acht

13: negen

14: tien

15: elf

20: twaalf

much like in German, the ones place is spoken before the tens place, the word for "and" separates the digits, and the whole name is written without spaces.

21: eenentwaalf

22: tweeëntwaalf

23: drieëntwaalf

24: vierentwaalf

25: vijfentwaalf

multiples of ten are formed with the suffix -tig in Dutch. in seximal, we can use an analogous -sig suffix for multiples of six.

30: dersig

40: veersig

50: vijfsig

the word "nif" can be loaned directly into Dutch, and can be combined with other words the same way Dutch uses "honderd".

100: nif

101: nifeneen

110: nifzes

200: tweenif

1000: zesnif

5555: vijfenvijfsignifvijfenvijfsig

the -exian series can be loaned almost directly.

1 0000: een unexiaan

2 0000: twee unexiaan

1 0000 0000: een biexiaan

## Slovak

someone called Havosh sent me this thing on Discord, a translation of the seximal system into Slovak. it’s pretty neat!

## Hebrew

a reader named Idan Zamir sent me this translation of the seximal system into Hebrew.

*(X - voiceless velar fricative)(š - voiceless postalveolar fricative)(everything is in feminine because that's what we use in counting)Numbers from one to twelve each have a unique name (with one exception), so here they are:1 - axat - אחת2 - štaim - שתיים3 - šaloš - שלוש4 - arba - ארבע5 - xameš - חמש10 - šeš - שש11 - ševa - שבע12 - šmone - שמונה13 - teša - תשע14 - eser - עשר15 - kaf - כף - (there's no unique word for eleven. but the letter kaf has the value of elven)20 - treisar - תריסרNow, Hebrew has a different conjunction depending on the first letter of a word, so you will sometimes see "ve" and sometimes "u", don't be frightened.21 - treisar ve'axat - תריסר ואחת22 - treisar uštaim - תריסר ושתיים23 - treisar vešaloš - תריסר ושלוש24 - treisar ve'arba - תריסר וארבע25 - treisar vexameš - תריסר וחמשSo! new words for larger multiples of six! I just changed the suffix "im" with the suffix "in", mainly because it's a familiar suffix in Hebrew for pluralisation.30 - šlošin - שלושין40 - arbain - ארבעין50 - Xamišin - חמישיןSo 43 would be for exmple "arbain vešaloš - ארבעין ושלוש"What comes after xamišin vexameš? I decided to call 100 "Noga - נוגה", why? because by the Jewish tradition, the light God created in the first day shined for 100 (36 in decimal) hours, and Ziv is a Hebrew word for light, it's not very common in every speech so there won't be any confusion.From here everything works like in the English system, so 5321 would be "xamišin vešalos noga treisar ve'axat - חמישין ושלוש נוגה תריסר ואחת". Hebrew uses the words million, milliard and so on so there won't be a problem using unexian (אונקסיאן), biexian (בייקסיאן) and so on, it's pretty straight forward writing them in the Hebrew alphabet.*

## Ndom

of the languages that natively use seximal, Ndom's numbering system is the most well documented. spoken by around a thousand people on Yos Sudarso island, Ndom is the reason this system uses "nif" for six times six.

numbers up to six have separate names.

1: sas

2: thef

3: ithin

4: thonith

5: meregh

10: mer

for numbers larger than six, the ones are separated from the sixes with "abo", which means "and".

11: mer abo sas

12: mer abo thef

13: mer abo ithin

14: mer abo thonith

15: mer abo meregh

twelve is just called "mer an thef", for two sixes.

20: mer an thef

21: mer an thef abo sas

22: mer an thef abo thef

23: mer an thef abo ithin

24: mer an thef abo thonith

25: mer an thef abo meregh

thirsy is called the very good name "tondor".

30: tondor

31: tondor abo sas

32: tondor abo thef

33: tondor abo ithin

34: tondor abo thonith

35: tondor abo meregh

40: tondor abo mer

41: tondor abo mer abo sas

42: tondor abo mer abo thef

43: tondor abo mer abo ithin

44: tondor abo mer abo thonith

45: tondor abo mer abo meregh

50: tondor abo mer an thef

51: tondor abo mer an thef abo sas

52: tondor abo mer an thef abo thef

53: tondor abo mer an thef abo ithin

54: tondor abo mer an thef abo thonith

55: tondor abo mer an thef abo meregh

and, as has already been stated, the Ndom word for nif is "nif". interestingly, instead of "nif an thef", the word for two nif is just "nif thef".

100: nif

130: nif abo tondor

200: nif thef

unfortunately, I couldn't find any source that listed out Ndom numerals far enough to show how larger multiples of nif are handled.

other natural languages that use seximal, like the Yam languages of Papua New Guinea, have well documented base root words, but how the roots connect together into numbers is unclear.

## Esperanto

Esperanto is allegedly an international auxiliary language, so it handles numbers in a relatively simple way. good luck saying "kvar" though. numbers up to six can stay the same.

0: nul

1: unu

2: du

3: tri

4: kvar

5: kvin

10: ses

multiples of ten are formed with -dek (ten) in Esperanto, so multiples of six can be formed with -ses.

11: ses unu

12: ses du

13: ses tri

14: ses kvar

15: ses kvin

20: duses

30: trises

40: kvarses

50: kvinses

multiples of a hundred are also formed with a suffix, so it's only natural to do the same for multiples of nif.

100: nif

101: nif unu

110: nif ses

111: nif ses unu

200: dunif

300: trinif

400: kvarnif

500: kvinnif

1000: sesnif

1100: ses unu nif

the -illion series is an -iliono series in Esperanto, and the illions are treated as separate words.

1 0000: unu uneksiano

2 0000: du uneksiano

1 0000 0000: unu bieksiano

## Toki Pona

it would be a literal crime if I included Esperanto here without including my favorite conlang. Toki Pona's numbering system is next to non existent, so it can be adapted into seximal without changing anything at all.

0: ala

1: wan

2: tu

3+: mute

"all": ale

this system isn't very useful, so Tokiponists extended it into an almost numbering system, using "luka" (hand) to mean five, specifying that "mute" always means twenty, and that "ale" (sometimes ali, to avoid confusion with ala) always means a hundred. the seximal equivalent would be something like this.

0: ala

1: wan

2: tu

3: tu wan

4: tu tu

5: tu tu wan

10: luka

11: luka wan

12: luka tu

13: luka tu wan

14: luka tu tu

15: luka tu tu wan

20: luka luka

30: luka luka luka

40: luka luka luka luka

50: luka luka luka luka luka

100: mute

200: mute mute

300: mute mute mute

400: mute mute mute mute

500: mute mute mute mute mute

1000: ale

2000: ale ale

3000: ale ale ale

4000: ale ale ale ale

5000: ale ale ale ale ale

it would very much be against the spirit of Toki Pona to have a way to say "unexian" other than "ale ale ale ale ale ale". that workaround you came up with just now? nope, can't do that. it's not that it doesn't work, it's just that the whole *point* of Toki Pona is the restrictions in its vocabulary.

## Lingua Franca Nova

a reader named Zacharie Deguilhem sent me this translation of the seximal system into Elefen.

*Since you have done a review of Lingua Franca Nova and you said that it was the least bad interlang you reviewed, I've had the idea to make a seximal translation for LFN. Here is my idea :Numbers up to six can be preserved.0: zero1: un2: du3: tre4: cuatro5: sinco10: sesMultiples of ten are formed with -des, so multiples of six can be formed with -ses (the orthography is the same as decimal).11: ses-un12: ses-du20: duses30: treses40: cuatroses50: sincoses55: sincoses-sinconif can be directly loaned.100: nif200: du nif300: tre nif500: sinco nif1000: ses nif5555: sincoses-sinco nif sincoses-sincoFor the -exian numbers I've found 2 possibilities:-Keeping the graecolatinish number roots plus the -ecsian suffix1 0000: un unecsian1 0000 0000: un biecsianetc...-or using another system which makes -ecsian works as a LFN suffix for numbers1 0000: un unecsian1 0000 0000: un duecsian1 0000 0000 0000: un triecsian (to avoid having 2 'e' in a row, we need to replace "tre" with "tri", which also means a third but that's not a problem here)1 0000 0000 0000 0000: un cuatrecsian1 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000: un sincecsianThen we have sesecsian, ses-unecsian, ses-duecsian, ses-triecsian, ses-cuatrecsian...*

personally, I think the first option for the -exian numbers is a bit more faithful to the original English system, but the second option works better with existing LFN vocabulary, so I'm including both here. well done, Zacharie!

## Vötgil

Vötgil is a simplified version of English. numbers are pronounced by saying their digits backwards.

0: Zyr

1: Wun

2: Twn

3: Xry

4: Fwr

5: Fiv

10: ZyrWun

11: WunWun

12: TwnWun

13: XryWun

14: FwrWun

15: FivWun

20: ZyrTwn

30: ZyrXry

40: ZyrFwr

50: ZyrFiv

100: ZyrZyrWun

1000: ZyrZyrZyrWun

1 0000: ZyrZyrZyrZyrWun

I hate Vötgil so much.